The Census demonstrates the importance - and benefits - of immigration - Spectator Blogs

11 December 2012

I suppose the confirmation that 13 per cent of the present population of England and Wales were born overseas will be the cause of some eye-brow raising and much spluttering from the usual suspects. It’s too late to repel the foreign hordes. They are inside the castle already. Some 7.5 million people born overseas now live in England and Wales (but mainly England).

Lucky old England, says I. Immigrants are drawn to and then help create economic prosperity. It is not, I suspect, a coincidence that depressed parts of northern England are also often those parts with the fewest numbers of foreign-born inhabitants. This makes sense: why would you leave Poland to claim benefits in Sunderland? No, you go where the work is. This also makes sense since, as can hardly be stressed too often, emigration is almost by definition an entrepreneurial act.

Actually, the 13 per cent figure is slightly misleading. According to other census questions some 91 per cent of respondents living in England and Wales feel some affinity to Britain, England, Wales, Scotland or Ireland. So the “true” foreign figure is probably closer to 9 per cent of the population than to 13 per cent.

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Be that as it may, one wonders where London would be without its foreigners. 37 per cent of Londoners were born outwith the United Kingdom and 24 per cent of the capital’s inhabitants are non-UK nationals. Truly, London is a city apart.

But if London is a law unto itself might that also help account for its abundant prosperity? It is hard not to think that immigrants are attracted by London’s success and that they then make a splendid contribution towards increasing that success. It becomes a kind of win-win situation that, whatever the pressures on local services may be, imposes costs that are dwarfed by the benefits it brings.

London is, these days, the British economy’s greatest engine. It is an engine built in part – and certainly serviced – by immigrant labour. Those workers have to come from somewhere and all the evidence is they won’t come from Merseyside or Tyneside. These are places, mind you, that could do with more immigration too. Not to ‘take’ jobs from the native-born but to help stimulate demand. People are a stimulus too, remember.

Nearly five million folk in England and Wales hold foreign passports. Approximately half of those are owned by citizens from other EU countries. The rest of the world – largely but hardly exclusively from the sub-continent – accounts for the remainder. All this is really quite encouraging. It suggests that, despite the difficulties of recent years, Britain remains an attractive place in which to live, work and thrive. A decline in the number of foreigners coming to the United Kingdom would be very much more troubling than this increase. And this is before one considers the non-negligible gains to these new British residents themselves. Are their lives, their liberties, their prospects of no account at all? I think they are of some account.

It is notable too that London is the part of England in which “Britishness” thrives most. That is, Londoners are more likely to consider themselves “British” than residents of other parts of England and considerably more likely to reject the label “English”. I suspect that has something to do with ethnicity too but it’s also a reminder that Britishness is a big and baggy concept with room enough for almost anyone, no matter what part of this planet they were born to. London is more of an international, global city than an English city but it’s also a very British place that is, if you will, perhaps more British than it is English.

Anyway, these census figures make a good case for immigration not against it. Not, I suppose, that the government will see it in those terms. But then the government’s immigration policy really makes very little sense.

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  • rndtechnologies786

    Nice thought.

  • LolaHeavey

    What is this — more corporate wishful thinking?

  • monsieur_charlie

    I wonder what Massie’s response would be if the politicians began giving away things that belong to him.

  • Fungus Addams

    What colour is the sky on this man’s planet?

  • Watcher

    We need mass deportation, non of this was asked for, necessary or legal.

  • Watcher

    Labour introduced this unwanted mass immigration to gain votes, to stop anyone else coming to power and to divide England, it’s in the minutes of the meeting 1998 for devolution. This needs making public and labour tried for their crimes.

  • Watcher

    Immigration, not wanted, not required, caused all the problems in this packed little land, we need deportation en masse.

  • adger42

    A Scottish journalist writing about England,not worth the time reading it

  • FloTom

    A Scot telling the English how to run their affairs. Weill there is a shock. Mind you it makes a change from them whinging about how badly done to they are

  • Fungus Addams

    Wonder if the Jocks would be so keen if it were their country that was over run?

    Thought not.

  • John

    Much of what is said here is about whether the immigrants are “good for the economy”. The point is not whether they are good for the economy or not but whether we the indigenous British, who have never been asked whether we want them here or not and have never given our consent to their being allowed to come and settle here, actually want people with totally different religions, cultures, morals and looks to live in our country. Most of us don’t. We have lived happily here for 15,000 years or so, with a few thousand new arrivals of our same race settling here more recently, on 2 or 3 occasions, and suddenly millions of real foreigners invade our land and we’re expected to like it. This has nothing whatsoever to do with economics. Just as Africans think Africa is for the Africans and the Chinese, Japanese and Koreans and the Indians and Pakistanis think their countries are for them alone so do we think England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are for us alone too. If our own people are idle, lawless or not good for the economy they’re still our people and we can easily tolerate them. Not so with foreigners. Has no one noticed that the Pakistanis, Africans, West Indians etc. think it’s fine to invade our country and colonise it but not at all fine for the reverse to occur?,

  • SE London

    Biggest load of bullshit I have ever read. Come and live in lewisham for two weeks and I challenge you to rewrite this article.

  • Sarah

    “depressed parts of northern England are also often those parts with the fewest numbers of foreign-born inhabitants”

    Is that true?

  • JeanFrançois Joubert

    13% born overseas? In Canada it is much higher than that. In Toronto it is over 50%. And Québec numbers are very high as well. Good thing to remember when comparaing Europe and Canada…

    • Sarah

      Canada’s and Europe’s immigrants come from different parts of the world and socio-economic brackets.

  • Matthew Whitehouse

    Fairplay to anyone who comes here to work… But, is there full employment between immigrants (i dont know but seems far fetched). Are there any immigrants who come here, get a job (and NI No). Leave job, rest at home (paid for) and claim benefits? If 3 million people came here in the last decade, what does that do to employment figures, are they all working? It is a lot easier to pay foreigners in cash, what does that do to the economy? How would we know or account for it… I think most people agree that immigration CAN BE good for economy but is it ALWAYS? If immigration IS good, then does that mean an OPEN DOOR policy is also good – if not “open-door” then how many? I dont think you can sum up if immigration is good or bad – i think you have to admit some is good and some is bad – SO – How do you differentiate? By letting everyone in? There is nothing wrong about capping immigration, what would we think if another country did it? Nothing.

  • Malfleur

    Are there any conservatives remaining at the Spectator? And what is this “You must sign in to down-vote this post” business? telemachus, the metaphorical catemite of the magazine, getting a bit upset about his negatives, then? We can have bouts like this on articles like this at the Staggers or Daily Kostive – why is the Spectator necessary anymore, except as the implement of the divide-and-rule policy of the British political class? For further views, see the magazine’s former fans at

  • JMckechnie1

    This magazine is going down the slope.

  • WillyTheFish

    “It’s too late to repel the foreign hordes. ”

    No it is not. Boot them out.

  • Nick

    The article by Alex Massie is complete garbage & hardly worth responding to.It could have been written by Tony idiot Blair.

  • Geoff

    It is an open secret that many Labour people dislike their fellow countrymen and saw an opportunity in 1997 to bring in new voters. That is the root of the deliberate relaxing of border controls by Blair and Brown.

    • Matthew Whitehouse

      Two things alondside each other here: Mass immigration + The EU’s power. By the time immigration reaches crisis levels (sounds like it already) Britain will not be in control of it’s own destiny (if it still is…)

  • Geoff

    Interesting that there is no discussion of the “dislike” of white English people by much of the liberal elite. I have known many lefty public sector types who until very recently routinely used phrases such as “white trash”.

  • WorthSaying

    Alex Massie, you are a racist. Replacing British people with non British people is racism.

    • Rahul Kamath

      You truly do live in an alternate universe.

      • WorthSaying

        Absolutely not. Go to Lagos. Tell the Africans that you’re going to remove 55% of them and replace them with people of a different race. See what they call you.

  • Leo McKinstry

    One very simple point: If mass immigration is really the key to economic prosperity, as Alex Massie claims, then why has Britain been in the grip of recession and stagnation over recent years, when the annual number of new arrivals has reached almost 600,000? According to Alex’s thesis, record migration should mean a record boom, But just the opposite is true: the more that settle here, the deep we sink in the mire.

    • Matthew Whitehouse

      And the less resources there are for everyone to share

  • Troika21

    Whilst I agree that immigrants can improve a nation over the long term, in the short term additional pressure on housing and local services can be over-whelming.

    A well though out, points-based skill audit would be extremely helpful in reducing that pressure, like in Canada I believe. Or by ensuring that firm roots are put down, or if they start a business and hire British nationals, that sort of thing.

    • Rahul Kamath

      A points system already exists for non EU migrants.

      I think the issue is less the volume of immigrants than their distribution. Net immigration (the number relevant to pressure on housing and local services) runs about 200k a year. On a pop in England & Wales of 60M that’s 1/3 of 1%. Population is growing overall at say 1% a year. On an aggregate level we can easily cope with this sort of growth. The issue is that the growth is lumpy, i.e. too much in London/ SE, too little in Cumbria.

      My own pref is for this growth to be dealt with via market forces. For a person living in the SE who feels displaced by a migrant, selling his/ her house to that migrant would be a nice way of dealing with it (and funding a move to Cumbria). The good denizens of Kensington & Chelsea have been doing this for yoinks.

      I also think that migrants (refugees excepted) should not have access to social housing or benefits till they become British residents. This is current govt policy though it maybe overturned by the EU.

      • Daniel Maris

        0.3% annual population growth is huge. That’s an additional 4 million people over 20 years. But of course, you conveniently forget that most of these incomers are young and of child bearing age and so have a much, much higher birth rate than the general population. Your 4 million has soon become an additional 8 million. Longer term, many immigrants come from countries like Pakistan, Somalia, and Nigeria where families are much larger than in the UK, so the longer term birth rate is also increased (this is why we are rapidly heading for a population of 70 million). Then with much higher rates of marriage to people from abroad, these immigrant communities continue to attract in additional people into the future.

        Furthermore, you are only quoting net migration.

        More generally, I am not quite sure why Londonders have to decamp to Cumbria to make way for foreigners. Why exactly do you think that’s a good idea?

      • Troika21

        Well…. that’s what been happening to the area where I live.

        Ten years ago all the schools around here used to have children with local accents, these days they’re all from well to do southerners who’ve moved into the area, pricing out local people who can no longer afford the prices.

        Moving people internally can have similar effects as international migration, so I’m not quite sure what would be accomplished with ‘selling houses’, besides pushing the poor and marginalised groups further from cities.

        It doesn’t really solve the problem, so much as move it downstream. I guess it starts at the top though – with Russians pricing out the local rich in London.

        • Rahul Kamath

          Displacement must occur when there is a supply/ demand imbalance in an area. That said, its nice to be the supplier when demand for your house (and thus its price goes up). For the original working class inhabitants of places like Hammersmith and Fulham both internal and international migration has been a godsend. Their houses are now fantastically valuable. They could cash in, sell up and move. Of course if you don’t own a house and can’t now afford to buy one in the area you grew up in then its not so much fun. But this is market economics, not socialism.

          • Daniel Maris

            Yes, but countries have immigration controls. That’s why there are so few naturalised immigrants in countries like Japan, Russia, China, S Korea and India, isn’t it? It’s a matter of choice. You’re speaking as though this is a force of nature, which it isn’t. Our politicians have decided to allow in immigrants at the rate of about 2million every five years.

          • WorthSaying

            R Kamath, in my life time four million white people have fled London. They have been replaced by slum dwellers from the third world. You are clueless. Open your eyes. Racial cleansing is driven by the welfare state not by market ecconomics.

        • Daniel Maris

          Good point. And yes the Russians pricing out rich Londoners does have effects further down the property ladder.

      • WorthSaying

        R Kamath is suggesting racial social engineering. He is a fascist.


    Immigrants create prosperity, very neo liberal short termist thinking. Still if we made work route migrants all guest workers with no right to settlement, forced all foreign students to leave the country at the end of their studies and reapply for a work visa from their home country and made chain migration and language translation illegal, we might be a bit closer to getting the ones that are useful. The truth is there are immigrants that benefit this country, immigrants that are a drain on it both economically and socially and those that simply raise the population, even though the infrastructure and resources does not go up. The fact that you lump the good in with the bad to try and justify the need for all, suggests your simply generalising and haven’t looked at the details.

  • Truth

    Both Labour and Tory’s are pro-mass immigration, don’t be fooled it’s the same in all European countries their poltiical parties both on the left and right support it. Those who oppose making whites a minority in Europe (can you image a black minority in Africa or Asians in Asia?) are labeled the far-right and called racist and fascist. What is being done to us is the worst form of racism which just proves once and for all that these anti-racists really are anti-white.

  • John Steadman

    National identity gone forever. But, hey – who cares? – we’re making a few bucks out of it says Mr Massie.
    London has gone, and the rest are just lining up….

  • Daniel Maris

    I think it’s the economic illiteracy in this article I find hard to take. It is an argument for just throwing open the doors. Anyone who then enters will by definition be “entrepreneurial” and the consequences can only be good…er, no.

    Firstly, each new net immigrant (and indeed their descendants) needs infrastructure: housing,. health, transport, education and so on..

    Even a mature healthy adult brings a net demand of probably something like £300,000 IMMEDIATELY on entry (on average). That’s the cost of housing the person they displace from the existing housing stock (which is what they are doing if they are a “net” immigrant) and providing them with other immediate infrastructure requirements, such as transport and public services.

    Then there is the issue of what exactly are these new immigrants doing. Of course many will be making a positive contribution to the economy – people with skills we may be lacking. However, I think that is always overemphasised.

    Lots of the skilled people coming from overseas are often people who form part of international companies with headquarters overseas. Others are simply “cryptotourists” – rich oligarchs etc who spend long periods in London but don’t add anything but their cashflow to the economy – which sounds good until you realise that most of their expenditure is going on activities which are serviced by other migrants (airports, restaurants, clothes shops, museums, cinemas, theatres etc).

    As for Polish plumbers, well the truth is that nobody home ever stayed flooded in the past. The work did get done, just a little more expensively.

    And what about all the hidden costs of immigration: the ESL teaching in schools, the hidden costs of educational underachievement of English speaking children taught with non-English speaking children, the increased costs of welfare in a high GDP/low wage economy, the additional burden on our prisons and social services, the FGM clinics, the additional AIDS clinics etc – it’s a very long list and I could go on.

    This is not the world of Adam Smith we are living in down here.

  • Andy Gill

    I’ve given up on the UK. It will be (deservedly) Islamized over the coming decades and it will serve the buggers right. I used to have a great affection for this country, and for most of my life, felt very grateful for the opportunities it provided me.

    Now its turning into an anti-semitic Islamist dump, and I’ll watch it go down the tubes without a pang of regret.

  • Wilhelm

    UK Enrichment News, a litany of black, muslim, gypsy crime, airbrushed, sanitized and not reported by the press and BBC.

  • Wilhelm

    Complete and utter codswallop from Massie as usual, but where does he actually live ? why it’s the Scottish borders.

    He loves the black and muslim immigrants so much, yet he chooses to do everything he can to live as far away as possible from them.

  • Hugh

    Perhaps the usual suspects would splutter less if you supported you defence of immigration with at least some evidence. This belongs at Comment is Free.

    • Daniel Maris

      LOL, how true Hugh!

      I think Massie is strictly a “mood music” man. He likes the mood music of being “liberal” , of being “Scottish”, of being “pro-immigration”…how much he is really any of these things is anyone’s guess. Don’t ask for evidence-based reasoning.

      Still, at least he has posted on this subject. Will see whether any other Speccie writer thinks London becoming a foreign city is noteworthy in any shape or form, compared with such vital matters as OBR’s invariably wrong forecasts or what George Osborne had for breakfast.

  • Jebediah

    The change in the make up of British society is so dramatic that the population should have had a choice. It was foisted on us. I didn’t vote for it, and I don’t want massive short term demographic change. I quite liked my country as it was. I would have voted for it to stay approximately the same.
    Too late now I guess.

  • Mark Baldwin

    There are 7 billion people in the world. Most of them are poor and – to be blunt – have nothing to offer a country like the UK. There are plenty of mediocre people here already and more being born every day, so letting them in from abroad seems to be unnecessary. However you try to fluff it up, uncontrolled immigration benefits the immigrants, not the recipients. The immigrants are leaving a situation they perceive to be worse, for one they perceive to be better.

    Now if we were filtering out the useless, the average and maybe even the above average, and allowing in only the best the world had to offer, then I could accept the idea that immigration benefits us. But we’re not.

    My own principles compel me to accept the free movement of people, but that doesn’t necessarily make it a good idea, lol.

    Here’s another angle: By the middle of this century native white Britons will be a minority, meaning in a democratic society that they have effectively given away control of the country their ancestors built for them. So, spend thousands of years building cultures, institutions and infrastructure that’s the envy of the world, then give it all away in a century. That is about as dumb as it is possible to get! If after working my whole life I left control of everything I’d accumulated to a random stranger instead of to my children, people would think I was stupid – not least my children. That’s what’s happened to Britain, and stupid it is!

  • sarahsmith232

    this article was a joke. to say there’s nothing wrong with London’s immigrants population rejecting English as an identity because they hate the English is something that we shouldn’t be concerned about is ridiculous.
    so what they can say that they’re British? what is their version of being British? it’s one which says that seperating yourself from anyone that isn’t muslim/Indian/Pakistani/etc, having zero understanding of what an English person is but instead filling in teh blanks with the kind of idiotic caricatures taht the BBC are only too happy to brain wash them with, e.g English people are all drunks, slags, racists, ignorant etc etc. so not only not see themselves as English but hate the English. about their only version of being British is that they pay taxes in this country and feel secure that they can get to enjoy living in a society that is based on the law and not bribery. that’s it. that is their understanding of what being British is. English haters that pay taxes!
    i mean please!

  • Daniel Maris

    Hang on, don’t you live in monoethnic Scotland? What’s it to do with you?

    Only someone with no knowledge of London would claim that mass immigration is benefitting people from families with a long history of living in this country.
    It’s Okay for people from moneyed families – you get cheap domestic servants and other services – but for working class and lower middle class people in London mass immigration is a complete disaster: no public housing, rising housing costs, pressure on health services, no English language schools for their children, crowded public transport, competition for jobs, lower wages, and no jobs for their children.

    Yes, immigrants come to work here, but that’s because London has become a huge migrant magnet and the whole economy has now become self-perpetuating in this regard. The financial sector and ever expanding Heathrow create the need for office cleaners and other low paid operatives. The rich workers in the financial sector and the oligarchs from overseas also need a vast army of people to serve them domestically and in restaurants, cafes etc.

    Combined with outsourcing in the public and private sector, this has created a huge reservoir of poorly paid jobs for migrants. Their elevated birth rate together with continuing migration is constantly pushing up London’s population, which of course does increase London’s GDP, enough to act as a further magnet to migration. But look at what is happening to median per capita GDP – or even worse median per capita disposable income and you won’t see growth. You will see a huge decline in recent years.

    Still don’t let this worry you – while you are pacing the Scottish glens (population density: 3 per square mile).

    • sarahsmith232

      jesus christ, so this person doesn’t even know what he’s talking about. if asked for his opinion on what the effects of immigration has been on Upton Park he would stare back blankley at the questioner, not knowing what the hell or where the hell they were asking about. he is not in a position to comment on the effects of immigration on England

      • Wilhelm

        Massie is a simpleton, the village idiot, please be gentle with him, he’s a bit slow on the uptake. I feel sorry for him

        • RobertC

          I have added a disapproval above because, though true, I don’t feel sorry for him.

          • Wilhelm

            ” I feel sorry for him ” I was being utterly sarcastic.

            • RobertC

              Changed to Approved!

        • George_Arseborne

          Why won`t you call him a village idiot? This is the best article I had ever read on this site. Congratulation Alex. Wilhelm and Co are just annoyed by the truth in the article. The jobs are there and because of lack of immigration from Liverpool and New Castle to London, immigrants from EU , Asia, and Africa has to come in and that is why the Economy of UK hangs in London with this good immigrant workers who work hard and pay their taxes for lazy benefit claimer to seat on the sofa and watch Jeremy Kyle and even participated in the program. What is the percentage of Immigrant seen in the actual reality show? calculate that and stop complaining

          • Larry

            It is Newcastle NOT new castle! So you kicked your retort off with incompetence! Also there is very much a great immigrant population in Newcastle, and long may that continue! That is all!

            • jake

              he never claimed that immigrants did not exist in Newcastle, he stated that British people from Newcastle and Liverpool should have immigrated to London to fill the increasing workload, rather then being lazy and deciding to claim benefits and therefore allowing working people (immigrants from another country) to move in and take advantage of these jobs. Just written roughly i assume.

    • Oedipus Rex

      Thanks Daniel, from a fellow Londoner. Exactly how it is – and not a drop of the poisonous racism that often goes with these observations. It is quite possible to have moderate levels of immigration that may be beneficial, but we’re way beyond that now.
      The affect on housing alone is leading to serious trouble. I despair of the ‘liberal’ attitudes that come from those who wouldn’t deign to send their own children to my local schools or live the crowded, extortionate and ever depressing lives that many now lead. And I say that as – to coin the cliche – someone who enjoys the company and friendship of people of many backgrounds.

      Funnily enough, a few years back some Bangi friends were complaining about Polish immigration! And so it goes on….

      • Matthew Whitehouse

        exactly, bangi friends going on about the polish – it’s because immigration doesn’t just affect white british people, it affects everyone.

    • George Igler

      Best comment I’ve ever read on here. The main reasons for facilitating mass immigration were economic, and the main reasons to be critical of it are in turn economic also. There’s nothing remotely racial, ethnic or bigoted about any of this. It is simply a matter of totally unsustainable metrics that are chiefly a benefit to corporatist interests. It’s all about rate, not race.

    • teh

      Very well said. Immigration is like red wine. One glass a day – good. One bottle a day – not so good. The UK is consuming about 10 bottles a day. The organism can cope in the short term, but there’ll be serious long-term consequences

  • LB

    Government spends 11K per head.

    So unless each migrant, man, woman or child earns over 40K a year, and pays tax on 40K a year, then they do not make a net contribution to the UK.

    Those earning less, are consumers of other people’s money.

    When we look at pensions, the liability for the pensions (hidden off the books) is 4,700 bn.

    No amount of migrants can get anywhere near paying that.

    Even the existing UK citizens can’t pay that.

    Add on Starbucks, Google, Amazon, BMW, Siemans, .. and any other business registered off shore, and you still can’t pay it.

    • Rahul Kamath

      You are looking at averages, not the marginal cost to govt/ marginal benefit to govt. Also to apply your analysis you need to look at a migrants life long earnings vs. cost, not just those numbers in the year they arrive. Basically you are wrong.

    • sarahsmith232

      same story in this country and the same story in western Europe, 40% of first generation immigrants are unemployed. that is one mother of a big **** off drain on the tax payer. it’s a joke to say that they’re contributing! the housing benefit bill in just little Tower Hamlets alone was £200 million per anum, this was during the last Labour gov’. i should imagine it will have come down under the Tories but not by much.

  • gladiolys

    Mr Massie – I am white, English and middleaged and live in a “deprived” central London borough. I love it here and have never had any problems with my local community, which is heterogeneous to the point of cliche. So I cannot take issue with anything you have written.

    But I’m looking forward to reading the counter-opinions. You have only written this for a bet, haven’t you?

  • kwestion.all

    At a time when the supply of labour currently outstrips demand, the immigration policy makes no sense at all. Also the time has come to lay the myth that all immigrants are entrepeneurial, they’re not. Most are just plain old wage labourers.

    • EJ

      How can this man Massie come out with such NONSENSE?

      Look at what is happening in London: white British outnumbered for the first time in our history. Ever-increasing ghettos where white British feel outnumbered, threatened and intimidated. Ever-growing areas where racial / religious “minorities” are aggressively asserting their culture and demands. What is happening in London is already happening in all our major cities. Soon it will be happening in our towns, sanctioned by the timid, self-hating, PC apologists that govern us.

      Our public services are collapsing under the strain. Schools and hospitals are completely overwhelmed. Prisons and colleges are breeding grounds of radicalism. Immigrant criminality is rife and unchecked, from grooming gangs, to people traffickers, to violent street gangs. Mosques are spreading across the land. Our children are lost, slaves to black gangster culture.

      This cannot possibly end happily – not for the white British at any rate. Now they merely feel threatened and intimidated. It won’t be many years before immigration and demographics mean that they are forced to defend themselves. Within 20 or 30 years there will be increasing civil strife across the land – and the traitors that inflicted this upon us will use their millions to flee. This is going to get very ugly indeed.

    • IJMO_DS

      It’s the elephant in the room, no politician wants to admit that we simply don’t need some immigrants at all, whereas some are very beneficial to the country. Instead we just get them all lumped in to together as immigration. Denmark found that it was the western migrants that made them all the money, whereas the migrants form developing countries cost them money. They changed the rules to encourage some and block others and saved millions economically. We may find our good immigrants simply pay for our bad ones and were not much better off, apart from more overcrowding and less resources to go around.

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